Laser Welding Machine Working Principle

Views: 5     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-05-19      Origin: Site

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The working principle of laser welding machine:

Laser welding uses high-energy laser pulses to locally heat the material in a small area. The energy of laser radiation diffuses into the material through thermal conduction, and the material melts to form a specific molten pool. It is a new type of welding method, mainly used for welding thin-walled materials and precision parts. It can achieve high aspect ratio, small weld width, small heat affected zone spot welding, butt welding, seam welding, sealing welding, etc. Small deformation, fast welding speed, smooth and beautiful welding seam, no need to handle or simple processing after welding, high welding seam quality, no porosity, precise control, small focus, high positioning accuracy, and easy to realize automation.


Hand-held Laser Welding Machine iGWL



Which industries are suitable for the use of laser welding machines?

Products with welding requirements

Products that require welding seams are welded with laser welding equipment, which not only has small weld seams, but also does not require solder.


Highly automated products

In this case, the laser welding equipment can be manually programmed for welding, and the path is automatic.

Products at room temperature or under special conditions.


It can stop welding at room temperature or under special conditions, and the laser welding equipment is easy to install. For example, when laser light passes through an electromagnetic field, the beam does not deflect. The laser can be welded in vacuum, air and certain gas environments, and can pass through glass or materials that are transparent to the beam to stop welding.


Some inaccessible parts require laser welding equipment


It can weld hard-to-reach parts and realize non-contact remote welding with high sensitivity. Especially in recent years, under the condition that YAG laser and fiber laser technology are very mature, laser welding technology has achieved more general promotion and application.

How does the Laser Welder work?

Laser welding uses high-energy laser pulses to locally heat the material in a small area. The energy of the laser radiation diffuses into the material through heat conduction, and the material is melted to form a specific molten pool. It is a new type of welding method, mainly for the welding of thin-walled materials and precision parts. It can realize spot welding, butt welding, stitch welding, sealing welding, etc., with high aspect ratio, small weld width, and small heat affected zone. Small deformation, fast welding speed, smooth and beautiful welding seam, no need to handle or simple processing after welding, high welding seam quality, no porosity, precise control, small focus spot, high positioning accuracy, easy to realize automation.

 

The working principle of laser welding machine: laser welding can be realized by continuous or pulsed laser beam. The principle of laser welding can be divided into heat conduction welding and laser deep penetration welding. The power density is less than 104~105 W/cm2 for heat conduction welding. At this time, the penetration depth is shallow and the welding speed is slow; when the power density is greater than 105~107 W/cm2, the metal surface is recessed into "holes" under the action of heat to form deep penetration welding. Features of fast welding speed and large aspect ratio.


The principle of thermal conduction laser welding is: laser radiation heats the surface to be processed, and the surface heat diffuses into the interior through thermal conduction. By controlling the laser pulse width, energy, peak power and repetition frequency and other laser parameters, the workpiece is melted to form a specific molten pool .

The laser welding machine used for gear welding and metallurgical sheet welding mainly involves laser deep penetration welding.


Laser deep penetration welding generally uses continuous laser beams to complete the connection of materials. The metallurgical physical process is very similar to electron beam welding, that is, the energy conversion mechanism is completed through the "key-hole" structure.


Under sufficiently high power density laser irradiation, the material will evaporate and form small holes. This steam-filled hole is like a black body, absorbing almost all of the incident beam energy. The equilibrium temperature in the cavity reaches about 2500 0C. The heat is transferred from the outer wall of the high-temperature cavity to melt the metal surrounding the cavity.


The small hole is filled with high-temperature steam generated by continuous evaporation of the wall material under the irradiation of the light beam. The four walls of the small hole are surrounded by molten metal, and the liquid metal is surrounded by solid materials (and in most conventional welding processes and laser conduction welding, the energy first Deposited on the surface of the workpiece, and then transported to the inside by transfer).


The flow of liquid outside the wall of the hole and the surface tension of the wall layer are maintained in a dynamic balance with the continuously generated steam pressure in the cavity. The light beam continuously enters the small hole, and the material outside the small hole is continuously flowing. As the beam moves, the small hole is always in a stable state of flow.


That is to say, the small hole and the molten metal surrounding the hole wall move forward with the forward speed of the leading light beam. The molten metal fills the gap left by the small hole and condenses, and the weld is formed.

And the above process happens very quickly, so the welding speed can easily reach several meters per minute.


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